What is a Learning Disability?
Albert Einstein could not talk until the age of four. He did not learn to read until he was nine; He was considered mentally slow, unsociable and as a dreamer. He lost three teaching positions and then became a patent clerk.
Thomas Edison was thought to be subnormal. Withdrawn from school and mother taught him herself.
LD denotes a significant impairment in the acquisition and use of the academic skills of reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic, in the background of the child having normal or above-normal intelligence. A child may not be determined as having SLD if underachievement is the result of:
⦁ A visual, hearing, or motor disability;
⦁ Mental retardation [ID];
⦁ Emotional disturbance;
⦁ Cultural factors; or
⦁ Environmental or economic disadvantage.
Types of LD
1.Specific reading disorder Reading achievement below the expected level for a child’s age, education and intelligence with the impairment interfering significantly with academic success or the daily activities that involve reading
⦁ Impaired ability to recognize words, slow and inaccurate reading, poor comprehension
⦁ Omissions, substitutions or distortions of words
⦁ Slow reading rate
⦁ False starts, long hesitations, “loss of place” in the text.
⦁ Reversal of words of sentences or of letters within words
⦁ Inability to recall or draw conclusions from material read.
⦁ Use of general knowledge rather than information gathered to answer questions
⦁ Overactivity and impulsivity, emotional disturbances, conduct symptoms, low self esteem, adjustment problems with peers and school
2.Disorders of written expression
⦁ Poor spelling(specific spelling disorder; mc difficulty)
⦁ Errors in grammar and punctuation
⦁ Poor handwriting
⦁ Specific and significant impairment in the development of spelling skills in the absence of a history of specific reading disorder, and which is not because of a low mental age, visual acuity p Most often phonetic errors.. Eg) fone for phone.
⦁ Reading skills should be in the normal range for diagnosis, can occur along with reading disorder
3.Specific disorders of arithmetical skills Specific impairment in arithmetical performance that is significantly below the level expected on the basis of age, general intelligence and school placement and should not be due to grossly inadequate teaching or due to hearing visual or neurological impairment
4.Nonverbal Learning Disabilities – a neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative and holistic processing functions
5.Mixed type-more than one type of LD is present in the same patient.
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